As high as one out of every 100 methionines was incorrectly placed in proteins, they discovered. When the cells were stressed by contact with a virus, bacteria or a toxic chemical substance such as hydrogen peroxide, that error rate went higher even, as up to ten % of methionines placed into new proteins were not the same as what the gene specified. Further experiments uncovered that it was generally the same amino acid, methionine, placed into new proteins incorrectly.The enzymes, indoleamine and arginase 2,3 dioxygenase, or IDO, have as a common factor degrading amino acids also, responding to inflammation and suppressing immunity, said Dr. William Caldwell, Chair of the Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Wellness Sciences University. That common ground includes a newly formed research group watching how and just why these two enzymes boost and how they could contribute to vascular problems in both an pet model of diabetes and a cohort of prediabetic humans. They theorize a vicious cycle where elevated glucose raises production of inflammatory factors like cytokines and reactive oxygen species which in turn elevate arginase and IDO. The latter then further elevates cytokines and reactive oxygen species which harm blood vessels.